Chris Spohr / Taiwan / 2003

Another natural experiment (Taiwan extends tuition-free schooling from 6 to 9 years), the author finds strong economic returns to education among women.

Joshua Angrist, Eric Bettinger, Erik Bloom, Elizabeth King, Michael Kremer / Colombia / 2002

After the Colombian government randomly allocated secondary school tuition vouchers, students were found to be more likely to have finished grade 8.

Esther Duflo / Indonesia / 2001

Exploiting a natural experiment (the Indonesian government's school construction program), the author finds strong positive economic returns to education.

William Easterly / Global / 2001

From the abstract: "In this book, Easterly shows how these solutions all violate the basic principles of economics, that people-private individuals and businesses, government officials, even aid donors

Paul Glewwe, Michael Kremer, Sylvie Moulin / Kenya / 2000

After textbooks were randomly distributed in Kenyan schools, test scores only increased for those who were already in the top quintile of academic achievement.

Anuradha De, Jean Dreze / India / 1999

An extensive survey of 200 villages in India, examining education inputs and outcomes.

Steven Spencer, Claude Steele, Diane Quinn / USA / 1999

An experiment was conducted where it was found that women performed poorly when anticipating a "stereotype threat" - i.e. when taking a test which they had been told women stereotypically did worse on.

Andrew Foster and Mark Rosenzweig / India / 1996

Examining the period of the Green Revolution in India, "the returns to (primary) schooling increased during a period of rapid technical progress, particularly in areas with the highest growth rates."

Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson / USA / 1995

Using an experiment, the authors find that African-Americans performed poorly on a verbal exam when anticipating "stereotype threat".